Sunday Sunshine: Pîhtokahanapiwiyin

Chief Poundmaker Historical Centre, Poundmaker Cree Nation, SK

Everything I could do was done to stop bloodshed. Had I wanted war, I would not be here now. I should be on the prairie. You did not catch me. I gave myself up.

You have got me because I wanted justice.

Poundmaker at trial, July 18, 1885, Regina

The Chief Poundmaker Historical Centre sits atop a hill on Poundmaker Cree Nation, SK. Along with the museum and interpretive trail, this site is the final resting place of Pîhtokahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker). Last summer, the Historical Centre and Fort Battleford partnered to present a Storyteller’s Festival, art shows, and concerts but the Historical Centre’s vision is focused on much more than Cree cultural events.

Chief Poundmaker was wrongfully convicted of treason in 1885 following the Northwest Resistance. He served only one year of a three year sentence at the Stony Mountain Penitentiary near Winnipeg due to contracting tuberculosis. Upon his release, he journeyed from his people’s reserve near Battleford to his stepfather Crowfoot’s reserve at Blackfoot Crossing. He died within a few months of his arrival and was buried there.

In 1967, Chief Poundmaker’s remains were interred on this hill in Poundmaker Cree Nation.

chief poundmakers grave
Chief Poundmaker’s grave, Poundmaker Cree Nation, SK

In 2017, Poundmaker’s gun and ceremonial staff were on temporary display in the Historical Centre’s museum. Floyd Favel, museum curator, explains that the Winchester “represents livelihood and the staff represents good governance.” Having these items on loan is just the beginning of the Historical Centre’s campaign to repatriate all of Poundmaker’s belongings housed in museums around the world. Their return will “allow us to once again own our own history and cultural artifacts and to interpret our own history in our way.

In 2018, the Federal government agreed to “move forward with Poundmaker Cree Nation to develop a joint statement of exoneration for Chief Poundmaker.” This agreement is the result of more than 25 years of lobbying by leaders for the truth of Poundmaker’s legacy as a peacemaker to be acknowledged and to be represented in the history books. Ultimately, the wish is that the repatriated artifacts be housed in a new modern building that meets international museum standards. The process will begin to move forward once Chief Poundmaker’s exoneration has been made official on May 2, 2019.

All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved.

Flashback Friday: Traditional Colours

Traditional Ukrainian Farmhouse, Western Development Museum, North Battleford, SK

Another frigid winter day in west central Saskatchewan as I not-so-patiently await the spring. My thoughts have turned to gardening, heritage vegetable seeds, and perennial flowers like the ones I saw a few years ago in North Battleford. This traditional Ukrainian farmhouse is located in the Western Development Museum’s Heritage Village at the corner of Highway 40 and the Yellowhead.

A woven wooden fence surrounds the front flower bed and a plank sidewalk leads the way inside. It’s not surprising that an abundance of yellow flowers are growing on the doorstep of a Ukrainian pioneer family’s home. Reds, oranges, yellows, and browns were traditional colours used in the art of egg decorating, or pysanky, to celebrate the festival of spring. Dyes were created from natural materials, like flowers and plants.

All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved.

Sunday Sunshine: Cut Knife Museum, SK

Cut Knife Museum's Pioneer Village from across the trout pond
View of Clayton McLain Memorial Museum‘s pioneer village from across the trout pond. Cut Knife, SK 2015

All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved.

What About a Shelf Life?

lynx trophy head, Frenchman Butte
Lynx, Frenchman Butte, SK

Fossils, guns, antique tractors, stone tools, quilts and clothing items, memorabilia, regalia… The private collections that have launched local museums across the prairies are as unique as the people who created them and the towns that now house them. While many artifacts require little more than a dusting and a Do Not Touch sign, special care and handling are a requirement for others. Some items age well, while others? Not so much.

Take a taxidermy collection. Almost all museums have a mounted bison, elk, moose, deer, or antelope head, and many others have multiple examples of local wildlife and birds. Some even have collections known far and wide for their variety, their excellence, or their humour (see the Madhatters’ Ball photo below). If the taxidermist was a professional, or even a skilled amateur, and the mounts have been taken care of, the odds of a collection still looking impressive are pretty good.

Madhatter's Ball with mounted rabbits
Fuchs Wildlife Gallery, Lloydminster Culture and Science Centre, Lloydminster, SK | Photo by Mike Beauregard for Atlas Obscura

But, when a mount has begun to deteriorate – and there is much that can go wrong – it can be unnerving, or spooky, even stomach-churning for the visitor. The lynx pictured at the top is housed in the Frenchman Butte Museum. The fur is still beautiful, and the overall shape of the mount remains realistic. It’s not an uncomfortable experience to view it. One collection I visited this past winter though, which will remain nameless, made me wonder why an exhibit would remain on display, when it had obviously passed its ‘best before’ date.

All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved.

The Wabasca Canoe

wabasca canoe on display
The Wabasca Canoe display, Frenchman Butte Museum, SK

Many of the pioneer village museums I’ve visited have outdoor exhibit spaces that display their vintage farm equipment and wagons, and their earliest vehicles. The Frenchman Butte Museum is no exception. Their collection is similar to the others, but also includes an interesting item captioned The Wabasca Canoe. And, what I especially liked about it was that its early history of ownership had been recorded, and was now on display.

Constructed by First Nations canoe builders at Wabasca, AB in the 1920s, the canoe was purchased by Wilfred Hunt, a trapper, and possible fur-trader working in the Liard River watershed. It was subsequently sold to Loren Cornell of Kinuso, AB who eventually passed it on to Erven Fester, who donated the canoe to the Frenchman Butte Museum in Saskatchewan.

More from the artifact description:

Hand-made, these lightweight canoes were 12 to 14 feet long. The ribs were hand-carved and steam bent over a frame. Before fur trade days they were covered with birch bark or moose hide… They were used for muskrat trapping, fishing and hunting.

Wabasca is from the Cree word wapuskau, which means white water, and refers to the Wabasca River. Today, the majority of the residents of the hamlet of Wabasca are still Indigenous, and bands of the Bigstone Cree Nation occupy 6 reserves on Treaty 8 territory in northern Alberta. Although, the practice of building traditional birchbark canoes in Canada today can still be a for-profit enterprise, many Indigenous canoe builders are re-learning the craft as part of their journey towards cultural reclamation.

All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved.

Bert Martin’s Cabin

Cut Knife, SK

Homesteading in the early 20th century, on the wind-whipped stretches of prairie was no easy task for new immigrants. Often, they knew little about farming and, even if they had experience working the land, surviving a Saskatchewan winter would still be a bitter struggle. Much of their success would depend upon how well they were able to make preparations before the cold weather hit.

Bert Martin's Cabin, front view

First shelters were often considered temporary, constructed quickly with whatever materials a settler could afford, or could find on the land. Tents and caves, sod, or tar paper shacks were common, replaced by log, frame, or stone houses as the homesteader’s fortunes improved. Severe weather events like droughts, floods, and cyclones were widespread as were their consequences – fire, insects, mud, and hailstones.

Bert Martin's Cabin side view

Winter would be the worst. Blizzards with extreme temperatures and wind chills, little visibility, and drifting snow could shut down an entire area. A settler needed a supply of food and firewood to survive until the roads were passable, again. He would need wool blankets and quilts, lamp fuel, and something to occupy the long days of solitude and isolation.

Bert Martin's Cabin, rear view

Imagine living in a shelter like Bert Martin’s: A log cabin, plastered with mud to keep out the wind, a small wood stove for heat, and a few small windows to let in the weak winter sun. There’s a dirt floor, a single bed, a table and chair, a few pictures to decorate the walls but it’s a simple dwelling. Could you imagine living like that for a year or two? It’s humbling to think about how many homesteaders did.

For more details and some great pictures, visit the Saskatchewan Settlement Experience at the Saskatchewan Archives Board website.

Bert Martin’s Cabin, Clayton McLain Memorial Museum, Cut Knife, SK. All photos, except where noted, copyright D. MacLeod. All rights reserved. Originally published on the Clayton McLain Memorial Museum blog.